Proportion of all children at age 5 who are vulnerable in at least one area, of development on the EDI, by specific vulnerability and income quintile (percentage), Canada, 2014

The denominator of all of these proportions is the number of children who are vulnerable in at least one area of development on the EDI.

CICH graphic created using data adapted from Canadian Institute for Health Information. Children Vulnerable in Areas of Early Development: A Determinant of Child Health. Ottawa, ON: CIHI; 2014. -accessed July 24, 2017.


The Physical Health and Well-being domain includes gross and fine motor skills (e.g., holding a pencil, running on the playground, motor coordination), adequate energy levels for classroom activities, independence in looking after own needs, and daily living skills.

The Emotional Maturity domain includes the ability to think before acting, a balance between being too fearful and too impulsive, an ability to deal with feelings at the age-appropriate level, and empathetic response to other people’s feelings.

*For more information on the Early Development Instrument (EDI) please click here

Children living in low income neighbourhoods are more likely to be vulnerable in the Early Development Instrument (EDI) domains of communication skills and general knowledge, language and cognitive development, physical health and well-being and social competence than are children living in high income neighbourhoods.

Children in high income neighbourhoods are more likely to be vulnerable in the domain of emotional maturity than children living in low income neighbourhoods.

The Communication Skills and General Knowledge domain includes skills to communicate needs and wants in socially appropriate ways, symbolic use of language, storytelling, and age-appropriate knowledge about the life and world around.

The Language and Cognitive Development domain includes reading awareness, age-appropriate reading and writing skills, age-appropriate numeracy skills, ability to understand similarities and differences, and ability to recite back specific pieces of information from memory.

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