Low and high scores were determined by the 10th/90th percentile cutpoints (as appropriate).
*Self-identified as belonging to a racial or cultural group other than “White” (does not include Indigenous).
**At least one parent reported that they had become a landed immigrant in Canada in the 10 years prior to the survey
Source: CICH graphic created using data adapted from the Survey of Young Canadians 2010/2011, Statistics Canada – custom runs.
In 2010/2011, younger children were more likely to live in families where their parents scored high on the ineffective parenting*** style scale.
This was also the case for children who were part of a visible minority group and children who were recent immigrants.
There was little difference based on income and community (rural/urban).
***The National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) and Survey of Young Children (SYC) measure effective parenting by looking at how parents communicate with and discipline their children.